TAE/IGY Crew

Meet the members of the Ross Sea Support Party to the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition and the International Geophysical Year

Credit: Murray Ellis
Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
Bob Miller headshot
Bob Miller
Harry Ayres headshot
Harry Ayres
Ron Balham headshot
Ron Balham
Trevor Hatherton headshot
Trevor Hatherton
John Claydon headshot
John Claydon

Field Party
Sir Edmund Hillary, leader
Bob Miller, deputy leader and surveyor
Harry Ayres, field leader and dog handler
Richard Brooke, surveyor
Ron Carlyon, surveyor
Murray Douglas, field support and dog handler
Murray Ellis, engineer
Bernie Gunn, geologist and photographer
Dr George Marsh, medical officer and dog handler

Base Party
Dr Ron Balham, meteorologist and biologist
Jim Bates, mechanic
Selwyn Bucknell, cook
Guy Warren, geologist

Radio Operators
Ted Gawn, radio operator
CPO Peter Mulgrew, radio technician 

Pilots
John Claydon, chief pilot
Flt Off Bill Cranfield, pilot
Sgt Wally Tarr, aircraft engineer

IGY
Dr Trevor Hatherton, leader of the science team, aurorae, gravity
Vern Gerard, geomagnetism
Peter Macdonald, technical officer, radiation, sea level recorder, glaciology
Herb Orr, technical officer, seismology, time service
Neil Sandford, technical officer, ionosphere, AZA transmitter

The wintering party at Scott Base, 1957. Back row, from left: Wally Tarr, Ted Gawn, Peter Macdonald, Roy Carlyon, Murray Douglas, Richard Brooke, Bill Cranfield. Middle row: Jim Bates, Herbie Orr, Neil Sandford, Harry Ayres, Selwyn Bucknell, Guyon Warren, Peter Mulgrew, Murray Ellis. Front row: Vern Gerard, Bernie Gunn, Ron Balham, Bob Miller, Ed Hillary, Trevor Hatherton, George Marsh, John Claydon.

Hillary, Sir Edmund P. (1919–2008) Leader Ross Sea Party TAE and IGY. 
KBE, Polar Medal, Hubbard Medal National Geographic Society, Commander Merite Sportif, Star of Nepal 1st Class, US Cullum Geographical Gold Medal, Royal Geographic Society’s Founder Medal, Explorers Club Medal. Educated Auckland Grammar School, Auckland. University College. Hon. LLD University of Victoria British Colombia 1969, Victoria University of Wellington 1970. Apiarist. Served in WWII in the Pacific, as navigator on Catalina flying boats. Gained mountaineering experience in the Southern Alps. Joined the first all-New Zealand Garhwal Himalayan Expedition 1951; the British Everest Reconnaissance 1951; the British Cho Oyo Expedition 1952; was the first person to reach the summit of Everest with Tenzing Norgay on the British Everest Expedition 1953, for which he was knighted; led the NZ Himalayan expedition 1954.These experiences secured his leadership of the NZ Antarctic Expedition 1956–58. The success of that expedition was followed by numerous expeditions in the 1960s and ’70s, including Ganges jet boat expedition from Calcutta to the Himalayas.

He made significant contributions as a philanthropist and humanitarian; in particular, in 1964 he set up the Himalayan Trust to improve services and infrastructure in Nepal by developing clinics, hospitals, airfields and schools there. The Sherpas called Hillary ‘Burra Sahib’, meaning ‘big in heart’. He served as the New Zealand High Commissioner to India, Nepal and Bangladesh from 1984 to 1989. He was the Honorary President of the American Himalayan Foundation, an Honorary Member of the New Zealand Alpine Club, the Explorers Club New York and Hon. President 1985–87, and President of Volunteer Service Abroad.

He returned to Antarctica in 1967 and climbed Mt Herschel. In 1985 he joined astronaut Neil Armstrong on a flight to the North Pole, making him the first person to have reached both poles and the summit of Everest. Hillary appears on New Zealand’s $5 note, an ultimate accolade.

Miller, J. Homes (Bob, later Sir). (1919–1986) OBE. Surveyor and Deputy Leader Ross Sea Party TAE.
Waimate High School (Dux); Victoria University Wellington BA, PhD. Polar Medal. NZ Institute of Surveyors’ Fulton Medallion. Mrs Patrick Ness Award of the Royal Geographical Society. Entered Public Service in 1936, joined the Department of Lands and Survey in 1938, surveying unmapped areas of Fiordland. Served in Middle East during WWII with 12th Field Regiment of Artillery; injured in action and invalided home to New Zealand. Consulting Registered Surveyor since 1948. In 1949 he led the mapping survey party of the New Zealand-American Fiordland Expedition; in 1950 he completed a survey of the Bounty and Antipodes Islands. During TAE , he surveyed vast areas of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains by dog sledge with George Marsh, with one journey of 1,680 miles (2740km) being the longest dog sledge journey on record in Antarctica. Executive Officer, Antarctic Division of the DSIR (1958–59).

Resumed survey practice in Wellington in 1959. Led the 1963–64 Northern Victoria Land expedition, the last major Antarctic expedition where dogs were used. Member of the Ross Dependency Research Committee from its inception in 1958, chairman 1971–1983; president of the New Zealand Antarctic Society (1960–63); member of the New Zealand Geographic Board (1968-86), and chaired the Royal Society of New Zealand’s National Committee for Antarctic Research (1970–76). Also involved with the Outward Bound Trust, and the World Wildlife Fund. Chairman of the Nature Conservation Council, and of the Australian and New Zealand Schools Exploring Society, and served on the world executive (1969–74) of the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE). Fellow of the NZ Institute of Surveyors and Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors. In 1979 he was knighted for his services to the Ross Dependency, conservation and surveying and was awarded an honorary doctorate in science from Victoria University.

Ayres, Harry H. (1912–1987) Mountaineer, dog handler.
OBE. Polar Medal. Born in Christchurch. At 16 he moved to the West Coast and worked on a farm, then with a Buller Gorge railway construction gang; and on the new road linking Fox to Franz Joseph glaciers. While gold prospecting and doing farm work at Waheka, Fox Glacier, he gained climbing experience and became glacier guide. At Mt Cook he undertook a three-year training programme and qualified as Chief Guide, and was Chief Guide at the Grahams at Franz Josef. Served with the New Zealand Third Division in the Pacific during WWII. Resumed guiding at the Hermitage in 1946, climbing all the major peaks of the Southern Alps, Mount Cook eight times and Mt Tasman five times, earning a reputation as New Zealand’s greatest climber. After TAE , he was appointed Chief Ranger for Mount Cook National Park; was then manager of the Automobile Association’s camping ground at Hamner, and later head gardener at Mona Vale, in Christchurch.

Brooke, Lieutenant Commander Richard. (b. 1927) Surveyor.
Polar medal. Educated at Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. Naval surveyor who saw service in WWII off the Normandy beaches in HMS Warspite. In 1948–50 was Third Officer on RRS John Biscoe (later HMNZS Endeavour) on supply voyages to Falkland Islands Dependencies scientific bases.
From 1950–51 he served aboard the HMS Scott, a hydrographic survey vessel. From 1952 to 1954 he was with the British North Greenland Expedition. Brooke was one of the two Englishmen selected by Dr Fuchs for the New Zealand Party of TAE. Carlyon, Roy A. Assistant Surveyor-Navigator. (1932–1980) Polar Medal. Born in Wellington, he spent his early years in the Cook Islands, at Pahiatua and Auckland. Educated at Wanganui Technical College (1949–50) and received a Bachelor of Engineering (Civil) in 1954 from Canterbury University College.

He worked for the Ministry of Works, surveying traverses for new bridges between Pukaki and the Hermitage. When selected for TAE was on the staff of New Zealand Railways in the district engineer’s office at Wanganui. Outdoor interests included deer stalking and climbing in Mt Cook region.

Douglas, Murray. (1927–1992) Mountaineer.
Polar Medal. Born and educated in Dunedin. A keen member of the Otago Tramping Club. When he was selected for TAE , he was working at the Hermitage at Mt Cook as assistant chief guide. His key role in the expedition was as mountaineer, but he also served as assistant dog handler, tractor driver and mechanic. He was originally selected as a member of the summer party, but Hillary kept him south as the 23rd member of the wintering party. After the expedition, he worked on the Ohau skifield for the Mt Cook and Southern Lakes Tourist Company. In the 1960s he moved to Otematata where he bought the information centre, also racing a launch called Miss Benmore. In the early 1980s he worked as caretaker of the camping ground at Gore Bay near Cheviot.

Ellis, Murray R. (1924–2005) Engineer.
Polar Medal. Explorers Club Medal (New York). Attended Waitaki Boys’ High School and Canterbury University where he graduated with a Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical). Joined the Royal New Zealand Navy Volunteer Reserve in 1942 as an elite Fleet Air Arm pilot, completing his training in New Zealand, England and the USA. After the war he earned a Degree in Engineering and joined the family firm, Dunedin-based bedding company Arthur Ellis Ltd, becoming Manager and later Managing Director, a position he held until 1980.

He was involved in many community organisations: he was vice-president of The New Zealand Alpine Club; president of the Otago-Southland Manufacturers Association; Dunedin co-ordinator for the Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme; director of the Dunedin Rotary Club; president of the Dunedin West Probus Club and a senior member of the Brevet Club. He was also a foundation member of the Himalayan Trust and helped build schools, provide water supplies and build access tracks in the Everest district of Nepal.

Gunn, Bernard (Bernie) M. (1926–2008) Geologist.
McKay Hammer Award of the Geological Society of New Zealand, Polar Medal, Royal Geographical Society Bronze Medal. Worked in Otago as a high country shepherd where he developed a keen interest in mountaineering, before going to Otago University in 1951 to study for a Bachelor of Science in geology. He became a skilled mountaineer and gained experience as a guide at Franz Joseph and went on to make a record of nearly 100 ascents in the Southern Alps. He was also an experienced photographer and map maker with the use of aerial photographs.

He collaborated with the RNZAF and Government Departments to make the first complete photographic survey of the Southern Alps from the air. Also a competent radio operator and motor mechanic. After the expedition he received a PhD from Otago University and went on to teach at Tulane University in Louisiana and the University of Montreal. His research focused on petrological topics and also retrieval and plotting of geochemical data, computer simulation of magnetic processes and computer data storage. He returned to New Zealand in the late 1970s and taught briefly at Seddon High School, then worked as a consultant and computer salesman, eventually becoming Managing Director of Kaipara Hills Forest.

Marsh, Dr. George W. (1925–1988) (TAE clasp). Medical officer and experienced dog handler.
Polar Medal. Born in Dorrington in the UK. Qualified in 1950 at St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London as physician and surgeon. Employed by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey between 1951 and 1954. During this period he served on RRS John Biscoe (later HMNZS Endeavour). In addition to his duties as Medical Officer, he was in charge of the base’s 50 dogs. Along with Miller, Marsh made the longest dog sledge journey on record in Antarctica during the expedition – of 1,680 miles (2740km) during which the two men mapped previously unknown parts of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains and polar plateau. He was a haematologist and went on to become a consultant at Hertford Hospital in England. He was a regular attendee of Antarctic Society events.

BASE PARTY

Balham, Dr Ronald (Ron) W. (1921–1999) Biologist and meteorologist. 
Polar Medal. Medallion of the Royal Geographical Society (London), honorary member of the Explorers Club (New York). Educated at Wellington College; awarded a Masters Degree at Victoria University of Wellington and a PhD from University of Missouri. He joined the Meterological Office in 1939–42. Served with the RNZAF between 1943–44, then in the overseas service coastwatching on the sub-Antarctic Auckland and Campbell Islands; this involved observational work on auroral and ionospheric activity. He joined the Research Section of the Wildlife Branch of the Department of Internal Affairs in 1947. In the 1950s he returned to academic study, eventually setting up the country’s first course in animal ecology. He published on a wide variety of topics, including waterfowl, Antarctic meterology and fossilized seals.

Bates, James (Jim) G. (1924–2011) Diesel mechanic.
Polar Medal. Bates was a skilled engineer and partner in a Morrinsville mechanical engineering business, with extensive knowledge of petrol and diesel engines. He was also an inventor – his designs included a honey-filling machine, honey extractor, high-pressure rotary valve pump, a new type of pipedrain digger, and he built his own astronomical telescope. He served in the 16th Reinforcements of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force in Egypt, Italy and Japan during WWII. He had extensive alpine experience including 30 ascents of Mt Ruapehu (mostly on ski), and of building huts in alpine conditions. After TAE , he ran a company supplying shipbuilding components, inventing and developing new boat designs.

Bucknell, Ernest (Buck) Selwyn. (1926–2001) Cook.
Polar Medal. Cook. Educated at Hutt Valley Memorial Technical College, Petone. Served an apprenticeship and qualified as a metal fitter and turner and toolmaker in New Zealand Railways. He joined the Wildlife Division of the Department of Internal Affairs in 1950 as a deer culler. In the three years before TAE he worked on possum research in charge of the Wildlife Division’s Orongorongo research station. Bucknell originally tried for the expedition as a diesel/electrical mechanic, but eventually was enlisted as the cook. He brushed up his skills during a crash course at the NZ Army’s cooking school at Waiouru, and became experienced at parcelling of supplies for airdropping. After the expedition he returned to wildlife work, becoming involved in the Canada goose control programme. In 1984 he was appointed Manager and Keeper of the Maud Island wildlife reserve for seven years until his retirement in 1991.

Warren, Guyon. (1933–2003) Geologist.
Polar Medal. Educated at Christ’s College Christchurch and Canterbury University College, graduating with honours in geology in 1955. He had experience in geological mapping for the New Zealand Geological Survey. One of the youngest in the group, he was also a capable surveyor, cook and photographer.

RADIO OPERATORS

Gawn, John Edward (Ted). (1917–1988) Radio Operator.
Polar Medal. Educated at Christian Brothers School, Dunedin, Marist Brothers’ Tasman Street School, Wellington and Wellington Technical College. A Merchant Navy Officer with considerable experience as a radio operator and expert at morse code. Served in WWII aboard the hospital ship Maunganui on voyages to the Middle East and in the Pacific. From 1947 to 1952 he served as radio technician with New Zealand Broadcasting Service at Titahi Bay, Wellington, and Opapa, Hawkes Bay. When selected for the Expedition, he was serving on the inter-island steamer Hinemoa.

Mulgrew, Peter David. (1927–1979) Chief radio operator.
CPO RNZN. British Empire Medal, Polar Medal, JP, FRGS, AMIRE. Educated at Hutt Valley Memorial Technical College, Royal Naval College, Greenwich, and Harvard Business School. He joined the Navy in 1945 and qualified in all aspects of naval radar and radio communications. He completed a course in London with the Royal Geographical Society in surveying, mapping, field astronomy and instrument adjustment, and was elected a fellow of the society in 1947. He returned to New Zealand in 1947 and served as a Petty Officer Radio Mechanic and by 1954 was appointed Chief Radio Electrician. He was selected for TAE as an experienced operator of ionospheric equipment. His association with Hillary continued and in 1960 he was radiooperator and climber in a Himalayan Scientific and Mountaineering Expedition with Hillary, but suffered pulmonary oedema and lost both his lower limbs to frostbite. He retired from the Royal Navy in 1963; participated in a 1964 Himalayan schoolhouse expedition, and in a 1966 Himalayan hospital expedition. He became the New Zealand Manager of Pye Telecommunication. In 1966 he became the General Manager of L J Fisher and Co, and in 1978 the Corporate General Manager of Alex Harvey Industries Ltd in Auckland. A keen yachtsman, he represented New Zealand in the world One Ton Cup yachting championships in Sydney in 1972, and sailed around Cape Horn the following year. He died in the 1979 Mount Erebus plane crash.

RNZAF FLIGHT

Claydon, John R. (1917- 2014) Squadron Leader and Chief Pilot.
AFC. Polar Medal. Educated Christchurch Technical High School; joined RNZAF as an airman in 1936; received ‘special distinguished pass’ with commission as Flying Officer. Served in WWII in the Pacific with No. 14 Squadron; then as administrator Air Department Wellington, and Command of Flying Training School Wigram. Following appointment to TAE attended No. 6 Squadron Hobsonville for training on Auster float plane. Visited Weddell Sea as member of New Zealand Advance Party in the 55/56 season, and during TAE provided support for Ross Sea Party depot-laying. In 1959–60 he was OC Administration at Ohakea; 1960 –63 Air Attache at the New Zealand Embassy in Washington; 1963 Director of Operations RNZAF; Honorary ADC to Governor General 1964–65; 1964–65 OC Administration at Wigram; 1967–70 Assistant Airport Manager at Christchurch International Airport, and 1970–72 Airport Management Advisor for the Asian Development Bank in Nepal. Today lives in retirement in Christchurch.

Cranfield, William Joseph (Bill). (b. 1933) Flying Officer and junior pilot RNZAF Antarctic Flight 1956-58.
Educated at Waitaki Boys’ High School and Christ’s College 1948–50. Learned to fly with Air Training Corps and Canterbury Aero Club; entered RNZAF in 1954. When selected for TAE , was an instructor at Flying Training Schools at Taeri and Wigram with over 1000 hours of flight experience. During TAE, flew 273 hours in route finding and depot-laying for Fuchs’ crossing party and in direct support of Hillary’s tractor party and three separate field survey parties; returned to Antarctica in the 59/60 season, effecting a difficult rescue after the crash of the Beaver near the Beardmore Glacier. Spent 28 years in various command, staff and flying positions, flying fixed and rotary wing aircraft, to Antarctica in the early 1960s, and went on to work for the Post Office, then the Union Steamship Company. After his retirement, he devoted time to teaching his skills to radio amateurs.

Tarr, Sergeant Lawrence Walter (Wally). (1924–2012) Aircraft mechanic.
Polar Medal, British Empire Medal. Educated Hamilton Technical College and Druleigh College, Auckland. He was a member of the Air Training Corps, before entering the RNZAF in 1943, training as a flight mechanic and engine fitter. He had wide overseas experience, serving in Fiji between 1947–49, and in Cyprus with No. 14 (Fighter) Squadron between 1952–54. He was a sergeant stationed at Ohakea RNZAF Base, with a reputation for skilled work and high standards when he volunteered for TAE and was selected as an engine fitter. In 1961 he took officer training and served as an engineering officer at Hobsonville and Wigram. He also served in the United States overseeing production of the RNZAF’s fleet of Hercules aircraft. He retired from the RNZAF in 1976 and built light commercial aircraft.

IGY

Hatherton, Dr Trevor. (1924–1992) Leader of IGY party.
Polar Medal. OBE. FRSNZ Hector Memorial and Prize. Born in Yorkshire, England, educated at University of Birmingham and Acton Technical College. Awarded BSc Hons (Special Physics), University of London, and Diploma Geophysics from the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London. Came to New Zealand as a National Research Scholar 1950 to study with the geophysics unit of the DSIR, work that led him to attain a PhD from University of London. He returned to New Zealand and joined the DSIR as a geophysicist in 1953, and was chosen to lead New Zealand’s IGY party. Wide recognition as an authority on Antarctic science led to study as a Commonwealth Fund Harkness Fellow at the California Institute of Technology, then as a Fulbright fellowship at Stanford University. In 1965 he became superintendent of the Geophysical Survey and, in 1967, Director of the Geophysics Division at DSIR. Elected a fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1969 and served on their council as secretary and later president. Awarded with a DSc from the University of London in 1973. Chairman of the Ross Dependency Research Committee 1983 to 1988.

Vernon B. Gerard. (b. 1924) Physicist IGY party.
Polar Medal (Royal Presentation by Queen Mother). Born and educated in Christchurch, gaining a BSc in 1946, and an MSc Hons in 1947. Employed by the DSIR Magnetic Observatory in Christchurch from 1942; saw short war service in the artillery, 1944–45; was stationed in Apia Observatory in 1949, and was later principal scientist at the Physics and Engineering Laboratory (PEL) where he made the first atomic clock and gas laser to be operated in New Zealand. Extensive experience in magnetic observations; installed, and operated without a break, the Geomagnetic Observatory instruments at Scott Base during the 1957 year; returned to Scott Base in early 1959 to re-calibrate them after the 1958 year. On sabbatical leave to work with National Physical Laboratory (NPL), London, 1960–63, and later worked in Geophysics and Geodesy Dept, University of Cambridge in England(1975), returning to work at the DSIR until retirement in 1981. Made a Fellow of the British Interplanetary Society in 1948 and a Fellow of the Institute of Physics in 1963. Author of many published scientific papers in journals in New Zealand and overseas, also the book With Hillary at Scott Base, A Kiwi among the penguins, 2012. Lives today in Upper Hutt with his wife, Remy.

Macdonald, Peter. (b. 1926) Technical Officer IGY party.
Polar Medal. Educated at Wellington Boys’ College and Victoria University. Appointed to Geophysics Division of DSIR in 1946; spent eight months in Australia in 1951 working for the Bureau of Mineral Resources. In 1954 trained as a teacher, but re-joined the DSIR on selection for IGY, and spent the rest of his career (until retirement in 1989) in Geophysics Division. Published widely, on IGY investigations (including the movement of the Ross Ice Shelf ), and especially on his later work in defining the extent of geothermal fields. This was mainly in New Zealand, but included work in the Phillipines in the 1980s under a NZ Government aid programme; took part in UN Symposia on the Development and Use of Geothermal Resources in the 1970s, and did work for the UN in Chile and El Salvador. His name given to the Macdonald Bluffs in Antarctica. Lives today in retirement in Wellington with wife Doris.

Orr, Herb. (1928–1978) Technical Officer IGY party.
Polar Medal. Born in Christchurch, and educated at Wellington Technical College, and Victoria University (BSc). In 1943 he joined the radio development laboratory of the DSIR. In 1946, after a year’s service in the RNZAF, he joined the staff of the Dominion Physical Laboratory, transferring in 1948 to the Geophysics Division of the DSIR. Went overseas in 1951 and returned to DSIR where he was engaged in seismic observations. His post-TAE career is not presently known.

Sandford, Neil. (1930–2013) Technical Officer IGY party.
Polar Medal. Born in Raetihi, and attended Wanganui Technical College 1944–48. Joined Radio Section of Post and Telegraph Department where he installed remote area communications links and radio systems. Held a First Class certificate in radio technology. In 1949 spent six months in Rarotonga working on the reconstruction of the radio station. He was chosen for TAE to undertake the operation, maintenance and observation of the panoramic isosonde and pulse transmitter. After the expedition, he moved to Australia to work at deep space tracking stations in Cooby Creek, Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla. He was involved in various NASA space programmes including the Apollo moon landings, for which he built the Apollo spacecraft simulator. Retired in 1998, but continued to teach his skills to others at the Oxley Region Amateur Radio Club.

BASE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Heke, Randal. (b. 1928) Foreman, Construction Unit.
Polar Medal. Educated at Cambridge District High School. Joined Ministry of Works, serving a carpentry apprenticeship, and working at various hydro-electric projects, successively at Karapiro, Maraetai, Tekapo, and Roxburgh; then as a Building Supervisor in the Pacific in Niue, Western Samoa and Chatham Islands. After TAE , returned to Scott Base in later seasons for other building projects, and later had extensive involvement with New Zealand embassy buildings around the world; he finished his career with the Ministry as Chief Building Officer in Head Office. He is a life member and past president of the Antarctic Society, and lives today in retirement in Waikanae.

Mitchell, Ron. (b. 1925) Architectural draughtsman.
Educated at Petone Primary School and Petone Technical College. Employed by Architectural Division of Ministry of Works for ten years and responsible for providing advice on technical aspects of the construction of building at Scott Base. A keen yachtsman.

Ponder, Frank. (1916–2001) QSM. Architect, Ministry of Works.
During the Depression obtained employment in an architect’s office, followed by the Housing Department, and in late 1940s transferred to the Government Architect’s office in the Public Works Department. Responsible for design of Scott Base. Later undertook extensive architectural work for the Department of Island Territories; consulting architect for the Department of Civil Aviation. In 1962 he was Chairman of the International Symposium on Polar Buildings at Colorado University. In 1964 he founded the Urban Development Association Inc.

OTHERS WHO PLAYED MAJOR ROLES

Dufek, George J. Admiral. (1903–1977) Commander USN Operation Deep Freeze.
Navy Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit with two Gold Stars, World War II Victory Medal, Korean Service Medal, Croix de guerre, Legion d’honneur. Educated at reserve Officer Training School, Annapolis 1921–25 and Naval Air Training Station Pensacola, Florida, 1932–33. Naval aviator and polar expert. Served in WWII and Korean War; Rear Admiral R E Byrd’s Third Antarctic Expedition 1939–41; USN Operation Highjump 1946–47; appointed Commander USN Operation Deep Freeze 1954 Task Force 43; established Little America Station at Kainan Bay and the later named McMurdo Station. Landed at South Pole 31 October 1956. Retired 1959. Director of the Mariners’ Museum in Newport News, Virginia.

Fuchs, Vivian Ernest (Bunny) (later Sir). (1908–1999)
Polar Medal. Royal Geographical Society Founder’s Gold Medal. Silver Medal of the Royal Society of Arts. Born Isle of Wight, and educated Brighton College in Sussex and St John’s College Cambridge, earning a MA and PhD. Studied natural history with an emphasis on geology. Participated in the Wordie expedition to Greenland 1929 followed by exploration in Africa. Served in WWII in Africa and Europe. Joined Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey 1947–50 completing three consecutive winters in Antarctica; appointed Director FIDS 1950; began planning for a Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1955. Following expedition to Weddell Sea wintered at Shackleton Base 1957 and departed for crossing of Antarctica 24 November 1957; arrived Scott Base 2 March 1958. Fuchs was Director of the British Antarctic Survey from 1958 to 1973. He was knighted in 1958, served successively as president of the International Glaciological Society, the British Association for the Advancement of Science and the Royal Geographical Society.

Helm, Arthur. (1914–1998) Liaison and postal officer Scott Base.
MBE, FRGS , FRPSNZ. Educated Riverton Primary School. Joined New Zealand Post Office 1930. Served in WWII for the First Echelon of the 2 NZEF. Returned to the Post Office in 1945 and transferred to Dunedin to attend the University of Otago; graduated BA Dickinson College USA; MA Victoria University. He returned to New Zealand in 1949 and he was stationed at Wellington as Post Office archivist and historian. In 1955 he was seconded to the Public Service as Secretary to the Ross Sea Committee. He was made a fellow of the Royal Geographic Society in 1956, and was secretary of the Antarctic Place Names Committee for seven years from 1957. He then transferred to Industries and Commerce Department. In 1959–60 he became Private Secretary to the then Leader of the Opposition, Rt. Hon. Holyoake. He was with the Tourist and Publicity Department between 1961–69 and with the Cook Islands Tourism Authority between 1969–72. From 1973 to 1978 he worked for the National Mutual Life Association. He was the New Zealand Director and Founder NZ American Field Service Scholarships; President of PEN; and an Honorary Secretary, then Vice President, of the New Zealand Antarctic Society. He published numerous books.

Hoffman, John H. (Jack). (1923–1991) Explosives expert.
Hoffman’s knowledge of explosives combined with his expertise of drilling led to his selection as a Summer Party member of the IGY team for 1956–57. He joined the DSIR in 1947 and became a Grade 1 Technician with Geophysics Division. This work involved field work and drilling for Geophysical Survey and work at hydro-electric sites and for geothermal investigations in Central North Island. During 1955–56 he was in charge of field staff establishing and erecting Geophysics Division’s observatory at Chateau Tongariro.

Kirkwood, Capt. Harry. (b. 1925) Commander of HMNZS Endeavour.
OBE DSC RN. An experienced ice captain.  Born in the UK. Served on Royal Research Ship Discovery for six years until WWII, visiting the Ross Sea on several occasions. He twice circumnavigated the Antarctic. For several years he commanded the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey’s ship John Biscoe; renamed the HMNZS Endeavour, it became the Antarctic Research support vessel. Kirkwood landed the New Zealand section of the expedition, along with the material needed to construct Scott Base. After the TAE he continued with a career in the Pacific and Hong Kong, and received an MBE in 1977.

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